How FICO Credit Scores Are Calculated
Since our world is so computer-driven, it should come as no surprise that your ability to repay your mortgage boils down to a single number.
Credit reporting agencies use your loan payment history in order to build a FICO score.
Experian, TransUnion, and Equifax, the three major credit agencies, each have their own proprietary formula for building a credit score. The original FICO model was developed by Fair Isaac and Company.
Experian uses this model and calls its score FICO. Equifax's model, based on FICO, is called BEACON, while TransUnion, which also uses a slightly modified FICO, calls its score EMPIRICA. While the formulas vary from one agency to another, each agency uses the following to determine a credit score:
- Credit History - How many years have you had credit?
- Late Payments - Do you have any payments later than 30 days?
- Your Credit Card Balances - How many accounts? How much do you owe on your accounts?
- Credit Inquiries - How many times have you had your credit checked for a loan?
Each of these is assigned a value and a weight. The results are added up and distilled into a single number. Credit scores range from 300 to 800. Higher scores are better. Most home buyers have a score above 620.
Your score greatly affects your interest rate
FICO scores affect more than your ability to get a loan. They also affect your interest rate. Lenders give lower interest rates to individuals with higher scores.
Can I improve my FICO score?
Unfortunately, there isn't a lot you can do to immediately improve your credit score. So called "credit repair" companies advertise quick fixes, but the score is calculated from your lifelong credit history, so it's not possible to raise it significantly in the short term. (Of course you must have incorrect items removed from your credit report.)
Getting your credit score
Before you can improve your credit score, you have to obtain your score and ensure that the reports from each agency are correct. Fair Isaac has created a web site (www.myFICO.com) that lets you do just that. It's inexpensive, fast, and easy to get your credit score along with credit reports from all three credit reporting agencies. They also provide information and online tools that can help you analyze what actions might have the greatest impact on your FICO score.
You can get a federally-mandated free credit report every year from all three credit reporting agencies by visiting AnnualCreditReport.com. While this report does not include a free credit score, the cost to "upgrade" your report to include a credit score is very reasonable.
Now that you have all the facts, you will be a more informed consumer and you'll be better positioned to obtain the right mortgage for you.
Curious about your credit score? Call us: 6507631924.